1984-2004
  • CAROLINIAN CANADA

CAROLINIAN SPECIES
& H
ABITATS
     
Carolinian Forests    
Carolinian Forest Flora

Click Thumbnails for a larger image
Tulip tree flower:  Dave's Garden Tulip-tree, (Liriodendron tulipifera):

The tulip-tree is one of two wild magnolia species found in Canada, and probably one of the most common `Carolinian Canada' symbols. The tulip-tree is eastern North America's tallest hardwood, commonly reaching 75 feet in height. This tree possesses a tall, straight trunk, a large crown, a distinctive four-lobed leaf, and large green and orange cup-shaped flowers. It is found in several locations in the region, including some ornamental plantings. You can see a mature stand of tulip-trees in Backus Woods near Long Point on Long Point and Region Conservation Authority lands.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America


Photo: Dave's Garden Sassafras, (Sassafras albidum):

Also classified as either a tall shrub or small tree, the Sassafras is known for it's unique leaf that looks like a mitten, with a thumb on one side. This species has a distinct spicy fragrance which is emitted from the leaves, branches and bark when crushed. The sassafras prefers rich, sandy loam soil and due to its shade tolerance can be found growing beneath other hardwood trees in the Carolinian zone.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America


Flowering Dogwood, (Cornus florida):

The flowering dogwood can either take the form of an erect shrub around 3 or 4 metres in height, or a small tree up to 9 metres in height. The white "flowers" on this shrub make it one of the more easily identified Carolinian species. Acid soils, located on the edge of sandy or wet woodlands, are the preferred growing conditions for this shrub.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America


Photo: Donald Kirk
Photo: Donald Kirk
Red Mulberry (Morus rubra)

Red mulberry is a rapid-growing tree of valleys, flood plains, and low moist hillsides. This species attains its largest size in the Ohio River Valley and reaches its highest elevation (600 m or 2,000 ft) in the southern Appalachian foothills. The tree has abundant fruit, which are eaten by people, birds, and small mammals.
Endangered nationally.

Species at risk information on Red Mulberry

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America



Photo: Natural Resources Canada
American Chestnut, (Castenea dentata)

The American, or sweet chestnut tree was once a major component of forests in eastern North America, until it was wiped out by the chestnut blight earlier this century. Not to be confused with the Horse Chestnut planted in urban areas, the native chestnut has a long, oval leaf with distinctive teeth, and a fruit that looks like a giant spiky burr. Only a few blight-resistant specimens survive today.

Species at risk information on American Chestnut, a threatened species nationally.


Eastern Redbud, (Cercis canadensis)

Eastern redbud is a small, short-lived deciduous tree. Redbud is also known as Judas-tree. According to legend, Judas Iscariot hanged himself from a branch of the European species Cercis siliquastrum. Eastern redbud is a strikingly conspicuous tree in the spring because it flowers before other tree leaves form. The wood is heavy, hard, and close-grained.

The Redbud is only known from one historic natural occurrence on Pelee Island, and is considered extirpated as a native species, but it is widely introduced as a 'Carolinian' species in home gardens, and is a beautiful species to plant with its small pink blossoms that appear in May before the leaves come out.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America


Photo: Hugh Wilson
Photo: Hugh Wilson
Cucumber Tree, (Magnolia acuminata)

Cucumber tree, also called cucumber magnolia, is the most widespread and hardiest of the eight native magnolia species in North America, and the only magnolia native to Canada. They reach their greatest size in moist soils in hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians. Growth is fairly rapid and maturity is reached in 80 to 120 years. The soft, durable, straight-grained wood is similar to yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). The seeds are eaten by birds and rodents and this tree is suitable for planting in parks. (Text by H. Clay Smith)

Endangered nationally and provincially. Species at risk information for Cucumber Tree

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America


Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)

Pawpaw is a member of the tropical custard-apple family and is found on moist sites and bottomlands scatter across the Carolinian zone.

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Black Maple (Acer nigrum)

Black maple is closely related to sugar maple in habit, life history and range. Black maple grows on a variety of soils, but most commonly on moist soils of river bottoms in mixed hardwood forests.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Ohio buckeye, (Aesculus glabra)

Only natural occurrence in Ontario is at Walpole Island. Planted more widely as an ornamental shrub.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Sweet Birch (Betula lenta)

Sweet birch, also referred to as cherry birch, was once the main source of oil of wintergreen. The aroma of wintergreen emanates from crushed leaves and broken twigs. It is found in Canada only near St. Catharines.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis)

Bitternut hickory is probably the most abundant and most widely distributed of the hickories. It grows throughout the eastern United States, southern Quebec; southern Ontario, south to Texas, Florida and Georgia.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra)

Found primarily on better-drained sites in the eastern and western ends of the Carolinian zone (Niagara-Norfolk-Brant and Essex-Kent).

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Shellbark Hickory (Carya laciniosa)

This hickory species has the largest nuts of all our hickories. Its range is relatively limited, primarily in the northern Niagara Peninsula, Essex and Chatham-Kent.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Hugh Wilson

Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata)

Shagbark hickory is found throughout the Eastern United States, southern Ontario and southern Quebec, south to Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and disjunctly in northeastern Mexico.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

Hackberry grows in many soils, and while principally a tree of bottom-lands, it is frequently found on limestone soils.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata)

Blue ash is restricted to the Erie Islands, Point Pelee, Peche Island, and the Thames River, Sydenham River and Catfish Creek valleys.

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Hugh Wilson

Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos)

Natural occurrences of the Honey Locust are found along the Detroit River and at Point Pelee and the Erie Islands. Widely planted as an ornamental tree.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Hugh Wilson

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)

Black walnut typically grows as scattered trees or in small groups throughout the central and eastern United States and southern Ontario. It is found on a variety of sites, but grows best on good sites in well-drained bottomlands

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: James Manhart

Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)

Sycamore is one of the largest in the deciduous forest and reaches its largest size and abundance on alluvial soils along streams and in bottom lands.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)

Hoptree is found at opposite ends of Lake Erie primarily in Essex and Niagara.

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Chinkapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii)

Chinkapin oak grows in alkaline soils on limestone outcrops and well-drained slopes of uplands, usually with other hardwoods.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Hugh Wilson

Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)

Pin oak is a fast-growing, moderately large tree found on bottom lands or moist uplands, often on poorly drained clay soils.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Virginia Tech

Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus)

Some authorities state that this species is not native to Canada, while others note it as a Carolinian tree species.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech



Photo: Alex Robinson

Shumard Oak (Quercus shumardii)

An oak of poorly drained soils and found primarily in Essex, Chatham-Kent, Lambton and Niagara.

More information from the U.S. Silvics of North America

Field identification guide at Virginia Tech


Photo: P.A. Woodliffe
Photo: P.A. Woodliffe
Green Dragon, (Arisaema dracontium)

The green dragon is a close relative of the Jack-in-the-pulpit, with a very similar flower. It inhabits rich floodplain woods. With 8-12 leaflets rather than three, it stands about a foot high. The "jack' in this species extends out like a long tongue from the narrow, clasping "pulpit".

Species designated Special Concern Nationally


 

 

Forest Flora    
Forest Fauna    
Old Field & Forest Edge Species    
Tall Grass Prairie & Savanna
Wetlands, Lakes, Rivers & Shorelines
Rare Species & Ecosystems
Carolinian Indicator Species
Uniqueness of Carolinian Canada
 
   
     
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       
       
 

Search  |  Contact UsSite Map